This is copied from the website: Executive Functioning Deficits (  on June 2, 2023. Please click the link for the orginal and thank you to JAN for creating this!

As the name suggests, executive functions are high-level mental processes or abilities that influence and direct more basic abilities like attention and memory. The term executive function describes a set of cognitive abilities that include the ability to plan, organize and strategize, pay attention to and remember details, start and stop actions, and form concepts and think abstractly.

Executive functions also keep us from behaving in inappropriate ways. People with poor executive functions have difficulty monitoring and regulating their behaviors. These difficulties can include monitoring and changing behavior as needed, planning future behavior when faced with new tasks and situations, and anticipating outcomes and adapting to changing situations. People with poor executive functions will often have problems interacting with others and fitting in socially.

Executive function deficits can be found in individuals with mental health impairments including depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia, as well as individuals with attention deficit disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, intellectual and learning disabilities, autism, and brain injuries.

The following is an overview of some of the job accommodations that might be useful for individuals with executive functioning deficits. More information can be found at JAN's A to Z of Disabilities and Accommodations page. For individualized accommodation consultation, contact JAN directly.

Time Management: Individuals may experience difficulty managing time, which can affect their ability to mark time as it passes incrementally by minutes and hours. It can also affect their ability to gauge the proper amount of time to set aside for certain tasks. As a result, it may be difficult to prepare for, or remember, work activities that occur later in the week, month, or year.

Memory: Individuals may experience memory deficits, which can affect their ability to complete tasks, remember job duties, or recall daily actions or activities. 

Concentration: Individuals may experience decreased concentration, which can be attributed to auditory distractions and/or visual distractions. Distractions such as office traffic and employee chatter, opening and closing of elevator doors, and common office noises can be problematic.

Organization and Prioritization: Individuals may have difficulty getting or staying organized, or have difficulty prioritizing tasks at work.

Multi-tasking: Individuals may experience difficulty performing many tasks at one time. This difficulty could occur regardless of the similarity of tasks or the frequency of performing the tasks.

Paperwork: Individuals may experience difficulty completing paperwork efficiently and effectively. This may be due in part to workplace distractions and difficulty with time management, disorganization, or prioritization. 

Social Skills: Individuals may have limitations in exhibiting appropriate social skills. This might manifest itself as interrupting others when working or talking, demonstrating poor listening skills, and inability to communicate effectively.

Attendance: Individuals may have difficulty getting to work promptly because of the varied activities, processes, and interruptions they may experience while preparing to leave their home and/or during their commute.

Getting to Work on Time:  Employers can have time and attendance standards for all employees. Because getting to work on time is the responsibility of the employee, the following ideas are for employees who are having trouble getting to work on time because of executive function deficits:

From: Executive Functioning Deficits (  

To Learn More About ADHD...

 Helpful locations online that provide credible, up-to-date information concerning ADHD include:

Children and Adults with Attention Deficit Disorders [CHADD]

ADDitude Magazine

How to ADHD Site run by Jessica McCabe with excellent YouTube videos and resources for people with ADHD. 

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